This three-movement composition, now played on the modern trumpet, was originally written for a hunting horn or corno di caccia also called a trompe de chasse, cor de chasse , a valveless horn coiled in the style of modern French horns, and used in the works of J. Bach , G. Handel , and others. The mouthpiece was shallow and cup-shaped like that of a trumpet, and the instrument was as long as the eighteenth century Yager trumpet and also had its same bore size. Therefore, the sound and range for this concerto is quite adequately realized by the modern trumpet.
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The new Prince, Paul Anton, had outlived his father by only four years and his son Prince Nikolaus II had followed the former in making his principal residence Eisenstadt, where Haydn had started his career with the family in Haydn now lived for most of the year in Vienna, moving to Eisenstadt only for a short period in the summer, there providing a number of Mass settings, while in Vienna occupied with the composition of oratorios, influenced by his stay in London, and of his last string quartets.
The inspiration for the Trumpet Concerto that he completed in was a newly modified instrument, the keyed trumpet. An earlier limitation of the Baroque clarino was its inability to play consecutive notes in a lower register, confined as it was to the notes of the harmonic series, widely spaced in the lower register and more closely adjacent in the higher.
Experiments had been made with the further development of the slide trumpet, on the principle of the trombone, and of the technique of hand-stopping to adjust the pitch, as with the French horn. It was, however, the invention in of a more effective form of keyed trumpet by Anton Weidinger, a friend of Haydn and a member of the Vienna court orchestra since , that offered even wider possibilities, coming after less successful experiments in Dresden in the s.
The keyed trumpet was later replaced by the valve trumpet of and fell into disuse. The concerto starts with an orchestral exposition during which the soloist is provided the means of warming up before the solo entry with the principal subject, later developed, before returning in a recapitulation leading to a virtuoso cadenza. French horns, orchestral trumpets and drums are not included in the scoring of the A flat major slow movement, with its effective use of the lower chromatic range of the keyed trumpet.
Johann Nepomuk Hummel was born in Pressburg, the modern Bratislava, in , the son of a musician. By he had returned once more to Vienna, studying, like Beethoven, with Albrechtsberger, Salieri and Haydn. Thereafter he resumed his career as a virtuoso pianist before settling in Stuttgart as Kapellmeister and, eventually, in Weimar in the same capacity, while continuing, as far as he could, his concert tours.
The slow movement, starting in the minor, allows the soloist a prolonged trill before the introduction of the principal theme, finally shifting to the major before the final rondo, which is ushered in by the repeated notes of the solo trumpet, a movement that brings taxing technical demands and bravura display.
In he moved to Dresden as a member of the court orchestra, of which he subsequently became Konzertmeister, serving there through the difficult conditions brought about in Saxony by the Seven Years War.
Neruda left a quantity of music of various kinds, including some fourteen concertos. Scored for an orchestra of strings, with continuo harpsichord, it is pre-classical in form, with an orchestral introduction, followed by the solo trumpet with the principal theme and its characteristic use of sequence in motifs expanded by successive repetition. The principal theme returns in the dominant in an orchestral ritornello before the trumpet entry with new material, a procedure followed in the following ritornello and final return of the principal theme in its original key, leading to a trumpet cadenza and coda.
The orchestra offers the first statement of the main theme of the slow movement, followed by the solo trumpet with an elaboration and extension of the same material. A cadenza precedes the second orchestral section of the movement and the soloist leads the way back to the original key and to a second cadenza, before the Largo comes to a close. The concerto ends with a triple metre Vivace, its principal theme proposed by the orchestra, a ritornello that returns in different keys to frame a series of solo episodes, culminating in a trumpet cadenza.
Born near Karlovy Vary Karlsbad in , he studied philosophy and law in Prague, before turning his attention definitively to music. In he became the first director of the new Prague Conservatory, retaining that position until his death in Conservative in taste, he took objection to the music of Beethoven, as he did to that of Carl Maria von Weber, but nevertheless had his Conservatory students perform a symphony by Wagner, of which he apparently approved.
He also served as director of the Prague Organ School, effectively controlling higher musical education in the region for many years. Kail went on to develop the double piston Vienna valve for the French horn. There is a slow introduction to the work, leading to the theme, marked Larghetto. The first variation introduces rapider figuration, with virtuoso triplets in the second and a demonstration of chromatic expertise in the third.
The fourth and last variation is a Tempo di Polacca, with a satisfying concluding coda. About this Recording 8.
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Trumpet Concerto in Eb major - trumpet & piano reduction
Relative to other composers of the Classical music era Neruda is little known, and his dates of birth and death taken from the Grove Dictionary are only approximations. He was born in Bohemia , now part of the Czech Republic , to a well-respected musical family. After spending his earlier years gaining a good reputation as a violinist and conductor in Prague and Germany, Neruda became Konzertmeister of the Dresden court orchestra. His compositional output includes eighteen symphonies , fourteen instrumental concertos including a trumpet and bassoon concerto , sonatas , sacred works and an opera Les Troqueurs. According to Nimbus Records Ltd. Originally written for the "corno da caccia" or " natural horn " using only the high register, it is now rarely performed on anything other than an E-flat or B-flat trumpet. Incidentally, the Corno da Caccia for which Neruda wrote is not to be confused with the 4-valved hunting horn which has recently been given the same name.
Concerto for trumpet & strings in E flat major
Horn Concerto in E-flat major (Neruda, Johann Baptist Georg)