His The Dual Mandate , first published in , became a handbook for all British administrators in tropical Africa, and influenced British colonial policies across the continent. It offered a comprehensive evaluation of the nature and challenges of British rule in Africa. To shield British spheres of influence from external intrusion, the British Foreign Office declared them as Protectorates. Territories acquired through conquest, cession, settlement, or annexation were designated as Crown Colonies. Apart from east and southern Africa, where the terrain and temperate weather offered convenient habitation to European settlers, the African tropics held few incentives for white settlers. However, the region provided abundant sources of raw materials and markets for manufactured goods.
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The name 'Dealtry' was in honour of Thomas Dealtry , a friend of his father. When she rejected him, Lugard decided to make a fresh start in Africa. Around , a group of Swahili traders under Mlozi bin Kazbadema established trading bases in the north-west sector of Lake Malawi , including a stockade at Chilumba on the lake from where ivory and slaves could be shipped across the lake.
In the African Lakes Company set up a base in Karonga to exchange ivory for trade goods from these Swahili merchants. The series of intermittent armed clashes that took place up to mid is known as the Karonga War , or sometimes the Arab War. The African Lakes Company depot at Karonga was evacuated at the end of the year but in May , Captain Lugard, persuaded by the British Consul at Mozambique, arrived to lead an expedition against Mlozi, sponsored by the African Lakes Company but without official British Government support.
Their first interior trading post was established at Machakos miles in from the coast. But the established traditional route to Machakos was a treacherous journey through the large Taru Desert—93 miles of scorching dust bowl. Lugard's first mission was to determine the feasibility of a route from Mombasa to Machakos that would bypass the Taru Desert. In August , Lugard departed on foot from Mombasa for Uganda to secure British predominance over German influence in the area and put an end to the civil disturbances between factions in the kingdom of Buganda.
En route, Lugard was instructed to enter into treaties with local tribes and build forts in order to secure safe passage for future IBEAC expeditions. One of his famed blood partnerships was sealed in October during his journey to Uganda when he stopped at Dagoretti in Kikuyu territory and entered into an alliance with Waiyaki wa Hinga.
While administering Uganda, he journeyed round the Rwenzori Mountains to Lake Edward , mapping a large area of the country. Stanley during the Emin Pasha Relief Expedition. In , Lugard was dispatched by the Royal Niger Company to Borgu , where he secured treaties with the kings and chiefs who acknowledged the sovereignty of the British company, while reducing the influence of other colonial powers.
He was recalled from Ngami by the British government and sent to West Africa, where he was commissioned to raise a native force to protect British interests in the hinterland of the Lagos Colony and Nigeria against French aggression. In August , Lugard organised the West African Frontier Force and commanded it until the end of December , when the disputes with France were settled. He was present at Mount Patti , Lokoja and read the proclamation that established the protectorate on 1 January In , British control over the whole protectorate was made possible by a successful campaign against the emir of Kano and the sultan of Sokoto.
By the time Lugard resigned as commissioner in , the entire Nigeria was being peacefully administered under the supervision of British residents. A Mahdi rebellion in at the Satiru , a village near Sokoto, resulted in the total destruction of the town and huge numbers of casualties.
Lugard was knighted in for his service in Nigeria. During his tenure, Lugard proposed to return Weihaiwei to the Chinese government, in return for the ceding of the rented New Territories in perpetuity. However, the proposal was neither well received nor acted upon. Some believed that if the proposal were carried through, Hong Kong might forever remain in British hands.
Lugard's chief interest was education and he was largely remembered for his efforts to the founding of the University of Hong Kong in He became the first chancellor, despite a cold receptions from the imperial Colonial Office and local British companies, such as the Hongkong and Shanghai Banking Corporation. The Colonial Office called the idea of a university "Sir Frederick's pet lamb".
He was financially backed by his good friend Sir Hormusjee Naorojee Mody who shared the same vision for a university in Hong Kong. In , Lugard returned to Nigeria as Governor of the two protectorates. His mission was to combine the two colonies into one. Although controversial in Lagos, where it was opposed by a large section of the political class and the media, the amalgamation did not arouse passion in the rest of the country because the people were unaware of the implications.
Throughout his tenure, he sought strenuously to secure the amelioration of the condition of the native people, among other means by the exclusion, wherever possible, of alcoholic liquors, and by the suppression of slave raiding and slavery. Lugard, assisted by his indefatigable wife, Flora Shaw , concocted a legend which warped understanding of him, Nigeria and colonialism for decades.
He believed that "the typical African Funding of the colony of Nigeria in the development of state's infrastructure such as harbours, railways and hospitals in Southern Nigeria came from revenue generated by taxes on imported alcohol. In Northern Nigeria, the revenue that allowed state development projects was less because the taxes was absent and thus funding of projects was covered from revenue generated in the south. The Adubi War occurred during his governorship. In Northern Nigeria, Lugard permitted slavery within traditional elite families.
He loathed the educated and sophisticated Africans of the coastal regions. Lugard ran the country whilst spending half each year in England, where he could promote himself and was distant from realities in Africa, where subordinates had to delay decisions on many matters until he returned. He based his rule on a military system — unlike William MacGregor , a doctor turned governor, who mixed with all ranks of people and listened to what was wanted.
In this work, Lugard outlined the reasons and methods that he recommended for the colonisation of Africa by Britain. Some of his justifications included spreading Christianity and ending 'barbarism' such as human sacrifice.
He also saw state-sponsored colonisation as a way to protect missionaries, local chiefs and local people from each other, as well as from foreign powers.
For Lugard, it was also vital that Britain gain control of unclaimed areas before Germany , Portugal or France claimed the land and its resources for themselves.
He realised that there were vast profits to be made through the export of resources such as rubber, and through taxation of native populations as well as importers and exporters The British taxpayer continually made a loss from the colonies in this period.
In addition, these resources and inexpensive native labour slavery having been outlawed by Britain in would provide vital fuel for the industrial revolution in resource-depleted Britain, as well as monies for public works projects. Finally, Lugard reasoned that colonisation had become a fad and that, in order to remain a super power, Britain would need to hold colonies to avoid appearing weak. During this period he served first on the Temporary Slavery Commission and was involved in organising the Slavery Convention.
He had submitted a proposal for the Convention to the British government. Although they were initially alarmed by it, the British government backed the proposal after subjecting it to considerable redrafting and it was eventually enacted. Lugard pushed for native rule in African colonies.
He reasoned that black Africans were very different from white Europeans, although he did speculate on the admixture of Aryan or Hamitic blood arising from the advent of Islam among the Hausa and Fulani. This would avoid revolt because, he believed, the people of Africa would be more likely to follow someone who looked like them, spoke their languages and shared their customs.
Olufemi Taiwo argues that Lugard actually blocked qualified Africans, who had been educated in Britain, from playing an active role in the development of the country; he distrusted white "intellectuals" as much as black ones — believing that the principles they were taught in the universities were often wrong. He preferred to advance prominent Hausa and Fulani leaders from traditional structures.
She was a writer for The Times and coined the place-name Nigeria. There were no children from the marriage. She died in January ; Lugard survived her by sixteen years and died on 11 April , aged Since he was childless, the barony became extinct. He was cremated at Woking Crematorium. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. British colonial administrator. The Right Honourable. This section does not cite any sources.
Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. The London Gazette. The British in India. Penguin; Random House. Lugard Terry, The Lunatic Express. Head of Zeus.
Retrieved 29 May London: Head of Zeus Ltd. Wilfrid Laurier Univ. Timewell Press. Africans and Britons in the Age of Empires, — Cambridge Scholars Publishing. The Times A Concise History of Hong Kong. Hong Kong University Press. The Rulers of British Africa — 1st ed.
The Administration of Nigeria to Oxford: Oxford University Press. Yale University. Archived from the original PDF on 7 December Retrieved 7 December The London Gazette Supplement. Governors of Hong Kong. Pottinger Davis Bonham Bowring H. Namespaces Article Talk. Views Read Edit View history.
Frederick Lugard, 1st Baron Lugard
The Dual Mandate in British Tropical Africa
It discusses indirect rule in colonial Africa. In this work, Lugard outlined the reasons and methods that he recommended for the colonisation of Africa by Britain. Naturally courageous, and naturally courteous and polite, full of personal vanity, with little sense of veracity, fond of music and loving weapons as an oriental loves jewelry. He lacks the power of organization, and is conspicuously deficient in the management and control alike of men or business.