To listen to Paco Seirul. Nobody can dissect football like Seirul. Because twenty individuals have enjoyed it. Moving the ball is not a meaningless game. Instead, the defensive line has a process of playing in each part of the pitch. One process near our area and in the area of our opponent.

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Abstract 2. In order to create an appropriate training process for team sports, it is relevant to define a differential paradigm of sport performance. Traditionally, the science of training for sports has been developed through the study of the needs of several individual sports and, in contrast, its results are applied to team sports.

We strongly believe that the analysis of the dynamic complex systems theories will provide us the best theoretical basis to construct a specific science of training for team sports. Accordingly, it is necessary to modify the systematic application of the Cartesian paradigm in such a way that we can provide more adequate solutions to explain the complexity of team sports.

Our proposal is to build channels of access between these theories and the different levels of the training process of team sports. Sport in the 20th Century. Sport in the 20th century is developed by means of its teaching and its training.

The Classical Paradigm In the classic paradigm there exists a reproduction of models by The model is reproduced depending on: -The evolution of the rules. All of them are external, alien to the athlete. The model is made up from the sport and from society.

Fundamentals to Practice Behaviorist and mechanistic theories have developed certain practices to achieve these goals. Both are developed by quantitative practices of linear and progressive sequences of analytical exercises. This paradigm, now in recession, has dominated our culture for several hundreds of years, during which it has been constituted our occidental society and considerably influenced the rest of the world.

Such a paradigm consists of an entrenched set of ideas and values among which we can mention the following: the vision of the universe as a mechanical system that is a compound of pieces, the vision of the human body as a machine, the vision of living in a society as a competitive struggle for survival, the belief in the unlimited material progress of society by economic and technological growth Capra, Sport in the 21st Century. Its teaching and training are a unique optimization process of the athlete.

Cognitivism and structuralism - supported by organizational biology, neural-sciences, systems theory, information theory, and ecological theories - achieve the auto-modeling or auto-structuring of the athlete. All of them are related to the athlete.

The proposals are taken from the athlete. The Athlete According to These Theories Based on the new paradigm, we are able to interpret the athlete as a hyper-complex structure that is made up of interactions and retroactive actions between the following structures: -Conditioning structure. Each structure must be considered as the expression of underlying processes. This means that the processes - a complete network of dynamic connections among all the systems - become apparent through what we call networks.

Also, what we traditionally call capacities are just forms of isolated evaluation of part of the processes that occur in some systems which makes up a determined structure. The 1st Contribution of the Systems Theory to the Development of Training This systematic and holistic conception of the player will provide clues about the conditions under which the athlete must develop his training activity in order to obtain his differential autostructuring.

Therefore, high variation content and high variability practice are most relevant. As pointed out in the new paradigm, teaching and training are a single element of optimization of processes which will become apparent as properties of each aforementioned structure, because these properties can only be considered from two standpoints: -The dynamic inter-activity of all the systems. We must construct specific exercises of structural training that provide such continuously dynamic inter-activity; in contrast to the repetitive and analytical training exercises typically used by individual sports and based on other theories.

First, are the stable levels that ensure the consistency of the interactions: Here we will build the base of the training system. It is implemented through certain movement forms that the athlete performs during the practice of his sport. They are practiced in specific situations containing relevant information that must be processed in order to perform the proper execution of the coordination simulation.

Next, are the levels of variability that provide Dynamic Interactivity: Firstly, the simulated situation must always make use of the Cognitive Structure. Next, relations with the teammates-opponentsobject must be established to feed the Socio-Affective Structure. And lastly, the Emotional- Volitional Structure must be engaged by living out specific moments of personal challenge and commitment.

The 2nd Contribution of the Systems Theory to the Development of Training One of the essential properties of any life manifestation is the irreducible tendency to construct multi-level structures of systems inside of systems.

These structures are a consequence of varied inter-active processes among systems of differential complexity that take shape as a network in which no one system is the most important.

This triggers the need to modify the laws of the traditional training, inasmuch as synergy relations are more used than progressive training loads and sequential planning is substituted by differential priority. Many other principles based on the hierarchical and linear conception must be substituted by inter-connected multi-level guidelines. Practical Consequences. Figure 1. Model of a Structural Micro-cycle. Every day of the training week, there are differential priorities that must be adjusted to the needs of the athlete.

All differential priorities are equally integrated in the total synthesis prior to competition. The total contents of each micro-cycle are in relation to previous micro-cycles, as well as future micro-cycles. This is based on different inter-connection guidelines so as to obtain the highest levels of structural optimization. The 3rd Contribution of the Systems Theory to the Development of Training We know that the function of the components of such networks is to participate in the production or transformation of other components of the network.

Thus, the output of these network processes is self-organization; the differential auto-organization based on processes of qualitative production which bring about each unique human being. On the whole, the so-called improvement of performance cannot be evaluated by quantitative criteria that are alien to the person; on the contrary, they should be evaluated by qualitative proposals which are based on the interpretation that the own athlete is able to complete at any moment and from any perspective of the discipline that he performs.

Bateson, G. Capra, F. La trama de la vida. Editorial Anagrama: Barcelona. Conexiones ocultas. Hayles, N. Editorial Gedisa: Barcelona. Mosteriu, J. Editorial Alianza: Madrid. Morris, R. Las flechas del tiempo. Editorial Salvat: Barcelona. Newel, K.

Variability and motor control. Human Kinetics Publishers: Chicago. Editorial Urano: Barcelona. Prigogine, I. La estructura de lo complejo. Order out of chaos. Bantam Books: New York. Abstract In order to create an appropriate training process for team sports, it is relevant to define a differential paradigm of sport performance.

Sport in the 20th Century Sport in the 20th century is developed by means of its teaching and its training. Practical Consequences Figure 1. References Bateson, G. Dynamic Systems and Performance in Team Sports.


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