Oral submucous fibrosis OSF is a premalignant condition caused by betel chewing. OSF can lead to squamous cell carcinoma, a risk that is further increased by concomitant tobacco consumption. OSF is a diagnosis based on clinical symptoms and confirmation by histopathology. Hypovascularity leading to blanching of the oral mucosa, staining of teeth and gingiva, and trismus are major symptoms.
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Tonsillitis is inflammation of the tonsils , typically of rapid onset. Treatment efforts involve improving symptoms and decreasing complications. About 7. Common signs and symptoms include:    .
In cases of acute tonsillitis, the surface of the tonsil may be bright red and with visible white areas or streaks of pus. The most common cause is viral infection. Anaerobic bacteria have been implicated in tonsillitis and a possible role in the acute inflammatory process is supported by several clinical and scientific observations. Under normal circumstances, as viruses and bacteria enter the body through the nose and mouth, they are filtered in the tonsils. Sometimes, tonsillitis is caused by an infection of spirochaeta and treponema , in this case called Vincent's angina or Plaut -Vincent angina.
In primary care settings health clinics , Centor criteria is used to determine the likelihood of group A beta-hemolytic streptococcus GABHS infection in an acute tonsilitis and the need of antibiotics for tonsilitis treatment. Besides, it is also ineffective in diagnosis for tonsilitis in children and in secondary care settings hospitals. The diagnosis of GABHS tonsillitis can be confirmed by culture of samples obtained by swabbing the throat and plating them on sheep blood agar medium.
The isolation rate can be increased by incubating the cultures under anaerobic conditions and using selective growth media. This small percentage of false-negative results are part of the characteristics of the tests used but are also possible if the patient has received antibiotics prior to testing.
However, this method is difficult to implement because of the overlap between carriers and infected patients. Therefore, throat culture is not routinely used in clinical practice for the detection of GABHs. Older antigen tests detect the surface Lancefield group A carbohydrate. Bacterial culture may need to be performed in cases of a negative rapid streptococcal test.
Epstein Barr virus serology can be tested for those who may have infectious mononucleosis with a typical lymphocyte count in full blood count result. Nasoendoscopy can be used for those with severe neck pain and inability to swallow any fluids to rule out masked epiglottis and supraglotitis. Routine nasoendscopy is not recommended for children. Treatments to reduce the discomfort from tonsillitis include:       . When tonsillitis is caused by a virus, the length of illness depends on which virus is involved.
Usually, a complete recovery is made within one week; however, symptoms may last for up to two weeks. If the tonsillitis is caused by group A streptococcus , then antibiotics are useful, with penicillin  or amoxicillin being primary choices.
Individuals who fail penicillin therapy may respond to treatment effective against beta-lactamase producing bacteria  such as clindamycin or amoxicillin-clavulanate. Aerobic and anaerobic beta lactamase producing bacteria that reside in the tonsillar tissues can "shield" group A streptococcus from penicillins. Oral antibiotics can be resumed immediately if the person is clinically improved and able to swallow orally.
Paracetamol is recommended for the pain treatment. Although nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs NSAIDs such as ibuprofen and opioids such as codeine and tramadol are equally effective, precautions have to be taken because NSAIDs can cause peptic ulcer disease and are bad for kidneys. Opioids can cause respiratory depression for those who are vulnerable. Corticosteroids are helpful in the reduction of pain and improvement of symptoms in 24 to 48 hours. Oral corticosteroids are recommended unless the person is unable to swallow medications.
Chronic cases can be treated with tonsillectomy the surgical removal of tonsils as a choice for treatment. Since the advent of penicillin in the s, a major preoccupation in the treatment of streptococcal tonsillitis has been the prevention of rheumatic fever , and its major effects on the nervous system Sydenham's chorea and heart.
Recent evidence would suggest that the rheumatogenic strains of group A beta hemolytic strep have become markedly less prevalent and are now only present in small pockets such as in Salt Lake City, USA. Complications may rarely include dehydration and kidney failure due to difficulty swallowing, blocked airways due to inflammation, and pharyngitis due to the spread of infection.
An abscess may develop lateral to the tonsil during an infection, typically several days after the onset of tonsillitis. This is termed a peritonsillar abscess or quinsy. Rarely, the infection may spread beyond the tonsil resulting in inflammation and infection of the internal jugular vein giving rise to a spreading septicaemia infection Lemierre's syndrome. Patients whose tonsils have been removed are still protected from infection by the rest of their immune system.
In strep throat , very rarely diseases like rheumatic fever  or glomerulonephritis  can occur. These complications are extremely rare in developed nations but remain a significant problem in poorer nations.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. PubMed Health. Archived from the original on 7 January Retrieved 30 September Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery. The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. Diagnostics and nonsurgical management". European Archives of Oto-Rhino-Laryngology. Encyclopedia of Molecular Mechanisms of Disease. Archived from the original on Oxford Textbook of Primary Medical Care. Oxford University Press.
Archived from the original on 25 March Retrieved 4 August Ferri's Clinical Advisor 5 Books in 1. Elsevier Health Sciences. Surgical management". In Bonita F. Nelson textbook of pediatrics. Philadelphia: Saunders. In Hoekelman, Robert A. Primary pediatric care. Louis: Mosby. In Dale, David ed. WebMD Professional Publishing. H; Biggs, T. C; King, E. V 23 November Clinical Otolaryngology. Nour; Mafee, Mahmood F. Valbasson; Minerva Becker Imaging of the head and neck.
Stuttgart: Thieme. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. Allergy Immunol. Immunology Today. Acta Otorhinolaryngol Belg in Dutch. Expert Rev Mol Diagn. Clinical Drug Investigation. The Antiseptic. Fam Pract. BMC Infect Dis. Infect Dis Clin North Am. Results of parallel randomized and nonrandomized clinical trials". Clin Infect Dis. January Management of Sore Throat and Indications for Tonsillectomy. Ther Umsch in German.
How the Cochrane Library can help". Medical Journal of Australia. Amer Academy of Pediatrics. ICD - 10 : J03 , J Diseases of the respiratory system J , — Community-acquired Healthcare-associated Hospital-acquired. Broncho- Lobar. Atelectasis circulatory Pulmonary hypertension Pulmonary embolism Lung abscess.
Tegesé saka "trismus" ing bausastra Basa Inggris
Analisi matematica. Il presente testo intende essere di supporto ad un secondo insegnamento di Analisi Matematica in quei corsi di studio quali ad esempio Ingegneria, Informatica, Fisica in cui lo strumento matematico parte significativa della formazione dell'allievo. L'impostazione didattica dell'opera ricalca quella usata nel testo parallelo di Analisi Matematica I. Il testo organizzato su due livelli di lettura. Proteinosis alveolar pulmonar Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis. Directory of Open Access Journals Sweden.
Chronic Diffuse Sclerosing Osteomyelitis of the Mandible
Chronic diffuse sclerosing osteomyelitis CDSO is a disease that presents a rather unusual clinicoradiographic picture creating diagnostic and therapeutic problems. Involvement of the temporomandibular joint is not frequently observed in CDSO. We report a unique case of a year-old male with cyclic episodes of insidious swelling and progressive trismus for the past 4 years. Each episode was followed by spontaneous remission after 2 weeks. Radiographic examination detected unilateral coarse trabeculae with ground-glass appearance of the left hemimandible and resorption of ipsilateral condyle. Computed tomography demonstrated endosteal sclerosis, cortical thickening, and condylar resorption, while magnetic resonance imaging revealed altered marrow intensity with postcontrast enhancement of the surrounding musculature. Bone histopathology was consistent with the diagnosis of osteomyelitis.