CLIPPER AND CLAMPER CIRCUITS PDF

Clipper and Clamper are widely used in analog television receivers and FM transmitters. An electronic device that is used to evade the output of a circuit to go beyond the preset value voltage level without varying the remaining part of the input waveform is called as. There are different types of clipper and clamper circuits as discussed below. As these circuits are used only for clipping input waveform as per the requirement and for transmitting the waveform, they do not contain any energy storing element like a capacitor.

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In this tutorial, we will learn about Diode Clippers and Clampers. Even though rectification is the basic application of diode, Clippers and Clamper circuits are equally important. This tutorial gives a in-depth information about Diode Clippers and Clampers.

Most of the electronic circuits like amplifiers, modulators and many others have a particular range of voltages at which they have to accept the input signals. Any of the signals that have an amplitude greater than this particular range may cause distortions in the output of the electronic circuits and may even lead to damage of the circuit components. In view of the fact that most of the electronic devices work on a single positive supply, the input voltage range would also be on the positive side.

Since the natural signals like audio signals, sinusoidal waveforms and many others contain both positive and negative cycles with varying amplitude in their duration. These waveforms and other signals have to be modified in such a way that the single supply electronic circuits can be able to operate on them. The clipping of a waveform is the most common technique that applies to the input signals to adapt them so that they may lie within the operating range of the electronic circuits.

The clipping of waveforms can be done by eliminating the portions of the waveform which crosses the input range of the circuit. Clippers can be broadly classified into two basic types of circuits. They are: series clippers and shunt or parallel clippers. Series clipper circuit contains a power diode in series with the load connected at the end of the circuit. The shunt clipper contains a diode in parallel with the resistive load.

The half — wave rectifier circuit is similar to a series clipper circuit. If the diode in series clipper circuit is in forward bias condition, the output waveform at the load follows the input waveform. When the diode is in reverse bias and it is unable to conduct current, the output of the circuit is nearly zero volts. The direction of the connected diode determines the polarity of the clipped output waveform. If the diode symbol points toward the source and is connected to the positive terminal of the supply, the circuit will be a positive series clipper, resembles that it clips off the positive alternation or cycle of the input sinusoidal waveform.

If the diode symbol points toward the connected load, then the circuit will be a negative series clipper, resembles that it clips off the negative alternation or cycle of the input sinusoidal waveform. In contrast to the series clipper circuit, a shunt clipper circuit provides the output when the diode is connected in reverse bias and when it is not conducting.

When the diode is non — conducting, the shunt combination diode acts as an open circuit and both the series resistor and load resistor acts as a voltage divider. The output voltage will be calculated as. The series limiting resistor is connected in series with the supply to prevent the diode from short circuits. It depends on the polarity of the shunt clipper which is determined by the direction of diode connection. Above biased clipper circuit is a shunt clipper circuit which uses the DC supply voltage to bias the diode.

It is the biasing voltage at which the diode starts conducting. The diode in the shunt clipper circuit starts to conduct when it reaches the biasing voltage. Clipper circuits are used in a variety of systems to perform one of the two functions:.

The first application is commonly noticed in the operation of half-wave rectifiers that changes the varying voltage into an output pulsating DC waveform. A transient is defined as an abrupt change in current or voltage with extremely short duration. Clipper circuits can be used to protect the sensitive circuits from transient effects. Cathode is connected to the power supply and anode is maintained at ground potential.

Anode is connected to the power supply and the cathode is maintained at ground potential. Anode is connected to the the power supply through a resistor R and the cathode is at ground potential. Cathode is connected to the power supply through a resistor R and anode is maintained at ground potential. Positive Half Cycle: Cathode is connected to the positive supply and the anode is maintained at positive bias potential.

Negative Half Cycle: Cathode is connected to the negative supply and anode is maintained at positive bias potential. Positive Half Cycle: Anode is maintained at ground potential and cathode is connected to a positive voltage. The diode is reverse biased during the whole positive half cycle.

Negative Half Cycle: Anode is maintained at ground potential and cathode is connected to a negative supply. Positive Half Cycle: Cathode is connected to the positive supply and the anode is maintained at negative bias potential.

Negative Half Cycle: Cathode is connected to the negative supply and anode is maintained at negative bias potential. Positive Half Cycle: Anode is maintained at ground potential and cathode observes a variable voltage. The diode is forward biased during the whole positive half cycle. Negative Half Cycle: Anode is maintained at ground potential and cathode observes variable negative voltage. The diode will be forward biased during the negative cycle.

Positive Half Cycle: In this case the anode is connected to the positive supply and the cathode is maintained at positive bias potential.

Negative Half Cycle: In this case the anode is connected to the negative supply and the cathode is maintained at positive bias potential. Positive Half Cycle: Cathode is maintained at negative potential, anode observes a variable voltage. Negative Half Cycle: Cathode is maintained at negative potential and anode observes variable negative voltage. Positive Half Cycle: In this circuit the anode is connected to the positive supply and the cathode is maintained at negative bias potential.

Negative Half Cycle: In this circuit the anode is connected to the negative supply and the cathode is maintained at negative bias potential. Positive Half Cycle: Cathode is maintained at V dc and anode observes a variable voltage.

The diode will be reverse biased during the negative cycle. Positive Half Cycle: In this circuit, anode is connected to the positive supply and the cathode is maintained at positive bias potential. Negative Half Cycle: In this circuit, anode is connected to the negative supply and the cathode is maintained at positive bias potential. Positive Half Cycle: In this circuit, anode node is connected to the positive supply and the cathode is maintained at negative bias potential. Negative Half Cycle: In this circuit, anode is connected to the negative supply and the cathode is maintained at negative bias potential.

Similarly anode of diode D2 is maintained at -V dc2 and its cathode observes a variable positive voltage. The diode D2 will be completely reverse biased during the whole positive half cycle.

Similarly anode of diode D2 is maintained at -V dc2 and its cathode observes a variable negative voltage. The diode D1 will be completely reverse biased during the whole negative half cycle. In this two side clipping circuit, both the positive and negative clipping levels can be varied independently. This type of circuit is called as Parallel based Clipper.

It uses two diodes and two voltage sources connected in opposite directions. Clampers can also be referred as DC restorers. Clamping circuits are designed to shift the input waveform either above or below the DC reference level without altering the waveform shape. This shifting of the waveform results in a change in the DC average voltage of the input waveform. The levels of peaks in the signal can be shifted using the clamper circuit, hence clampers can also be referred as level shifters.

Clampers can be broadly classified into two types. They are positive clampers and negative clampers. The direction of the diode in the clamping circuit determines the clamper circuit type.

The operation of a clamping circuit is mainly based on the switching time constants of the capacitor. However, capacitor in the circuit charges through the diode and discharges through the load. The Negative Clamping circuit consists of a diode connected in parallel with the load. The capacitor used in the clamping circuit can be chosen such that it must charge very quickly and it should not discharge very drastically.

The anode of the diode is connected to the capacitor and cathode to the ground. During the positive half cycle of the input, the diode is in forward bias and as the diode conducts the capacitor charges very quickly. During the negative half cycle of the input, the diode will be in reverse bias and the diode will not conduct, the output voltage will be equal to the sum of the applied input voltage and the charge stored in the capacitor during reverse bias.

The output waveform is same as input waveform, but shifted below 0 volts. The circuit arrangement is very similar to the Negative clamper circuit, but a DC reference supply is connected in series with the diode. The output waveform is also similar to the Negative clamper output waveform, but it is shifted towards the positive direction by an amount equal to the reference voltage at the diode.

If the reference voltage directions in the above case are reversed and connected to the diode in series, then during the positive half cycle the diode starts conducting current before applying input voltage. Since the cathode has a very small negative reference voltage less than zero volts, the waveform is shifted away from the 0 volts towards the negative direction by an amount of the reference voltage. The circuit of the positive clamper is similar to the negative clamper but the direction of the diode is inverted in such a way that the cathode of the diode is connected to the capacitor.

During the positive half wave cycle, output voltage of the circuit will be the sum of applied input voltage and the charge stored at capacitor. During the negative half wave cycle, the diode starts to conduct and charges the capacitor very quickly to its maximum value. The output waveform of the positive clamper shifts towards the positive direction above the 0 volts.

A positive reference voltage is connected in series with the diode in the positive clamper circuit such that the positive terminal of the reference voltage is connected in series with the anode of the diode. If once the cathode voltage is greater than anode voltage, the diode stops conduction of electric current.

During the negative half cycle, the diode conducts and charges the capacitor very quickly. The direction of the reference voltage is reversed in this case such that the negative terminal of the reference voltage is connected in series with the anode of diode reflecting it as a negative reference voltage.

During the positive half wave cycle of the input waveform, the diode does not conduct, as a result the output is equal to voltage stored in the capacitor and applied input voltage. During the negative half cycle, the diode starts conducting current solely after the cathode voltage value is less than the anode voltage. Your email address will not be published. Table of Contents. Comments Good Concepts and information. Leave a Reply Cancel reply Your email address will not be published.

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Difference Between Clipper and Clamper

The major difference between clipper and clamper is that clipper is a limiting circuit which limits the output voltage while clamper is a circuit which shifts the DC level of output voltage. The clipper and clamper circuits are exactly opposite to each other regarding their working principle. Another significant difference between clipper and clamper is the shape of the output waveform. The voltage which is clipped by clipper can assume various shapes, but the voltage obtained by clamper circuit does not alter in shape. Clipper is crucial when we want to modify the amplitude of the voltage. Clipping of signal amplitude is required in some application in which components cannot withstand the high magnitude of the voltage. While clamper is used when we need multiples of the input voltage at the output terminal.

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Electronic Circuits - Clamper Circuits

Actually, the positive and negative peaks of the signals can be placed at desired levels using the clamping circuits. As the DC level gets shifted, a clamper circuit is called as a Level Shifter. Clamper circuits consist of energy storage elements like capacitors. A simple clamper circuit comprises of a capacitor, a diode, a resistor and a dc battery if required. A Clamper circuit can be defined as the circuit that consists of a diode, a resistor and a capacitor that shifts the waveform to a desired DC level without changing the actual appearance of the applied signal. In order to maintain the time period of the wave form, the tau must be greater than, half the time period discharging time of the capacitor should be slow.

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Clipper (electronics)

A circuit which cutoff voltage above or below are both at specified level is called clipper. A clipper which removes a portion of positive half cycle of the input signal is called positive clipper. A clipper circuit that removes the negative half cycle is called negative clipper. Figure a shows the circuit of a positive clipper.

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Types of Clippers and Clampers with Applications

In this tutorial, we will learn about Diode Clippers and Clampers. Even though rectification is the basic application of diode, Clippers and Clamper circuits are equally important. This tutorial gives a in-depth information about Diode Clippers and Clampers. Most of the electronic circuits like amplifiers, modulators and many others have a particular range of voltages at which they have to accept the input signals.

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