Here, we adopt an evolutionary developmental approach to study miRNA function by examining their expression throughout embryogenesis in both Caenorhabditis elegans and Drosophila melanogaster. We find that, in both species, miRNA transcriptomic shifts in a punctuated fashion during the mid-developmental transition, specifying two dominant modes of early and late expression profiles. Strikingly, late-expressed miRNAs are enriched for phylogenetic conservation and function by fine-tuning the expression of their targets, implicating a role in the canalization of cell types during differentiation. In contrast, early expressed miRNAs are inversely expressed with their targets suggesting strong target-inhibition. Taken together, our work exposes a bimodal role for miRNA function during animal development, involving late-expressed physiological roles and early expressed repressive roles.
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Recent Activity. Recent history Saved searches. Abstract Available from publisher site using DOI. A subscription may be required. Eran Hornstein Search articles by 'Eran Hornstein'. Hornstein E ,. Noam Shomron Search articles by 'Noam Shomron'. Shomron N. Affiliations All authors 1.
Share this article Share with email Share with twitter Share with linkedin Share with facebook. Canalization is a design principle wherein developmental pathways are stabilized to increase phenotypic reproducibility. We suggest that miRNA interactions with the network of protein-coding genes evolved to buffer stochastic perturbations and thereby confer robustness to developmental genetic programs. A model relating gene replicas and gene repression to phenotypic expression and variability. Rendel JM Proc.
Canalization in evolutionary genetics: a stabilizing theory? The evolutionary genetics of canalization. Hsp90 as a capacitor of phenotypic variation. Hsp90 as a capacitor for morphological evolution.
MicroRNAs: genomics, biogenesis, mechanism, and function. Conserved seed pairing, often flanked by adenosines, indicates that thousands of human genes are microRNA targets. Systematic discovery of regulatory motifs in human promoters and 3' UTRs by comparison of several mammals. Show 10 more references 10 of Smart citations by scite. The number of the statements may be higher than the number of citations provided by EuropePMC if one paper cites another multiple times or lower if scite has not yet processed some of the citing articles.
Explore citation contexts and check if this article has been supported or contradicted. Milk-derived miRNA profiles elucidate molecular pathways that underlie breast dysfunction in women with common genetic variants in SLC30A2.
Investigating the evolution and development of biological complexity under the framework of epigenetics. Functional aspects of animal microRNAs. Inter- and intra-combinatorial regulation by transcription factors and microRNAs. MicroRNAs grow up in the immune system.
Canalization of Development by microRNAs
PLoS Biol 8 6 : e This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. Competing interests: The author has declared that no competing interests exist. It does not happen often that an entirely novel gene regulatory mechanism is revealed. The discovery of microRNAs miRNAs is one such finding that revolutionized our understanding of cellular events and of the intricacy of developmental processes  , . With a very short recognition sequence determining its specificity for target mRNAs, each miRNA can potentially regulate hundreds of transcripts, though in many cases the physiological effects of miRNA targeting can be attributed to its binding to one major mRNA transcript.
Canalization of development by microRNAs.
Evolution under canalization and the dual roles of microRNAs—A hypothesis
Robustness is a fundamental property of biological systems. The type of robustness that ensures uniform phenotypic outcomes in the face of variation during an organism's development is called canalization. Here, we discuss the roles that microRNAs play in providing canalization to animal development, citing recent theoretical and experimental advances. MicroRNAs repress protein expression, and they do this in ways that create thresholds in expression and provide adaptation to regulatory networks. Numerous examples have now been described where the developmental impact of environmental variation is suppressed by individual microRNAs.