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Noorduyn J. A Panorama of the World from Sundanese Perspective. In: Archipel , volume 57, L'horizon nousantarien. In the sub-chapter entitled "Les errances des insatisfaits" among others he discusses the story of Bujangga Manik, a Sundanese itinerant of noble descent who in a pilgrim's progress to eternity for many years travelled all over Java and even visited Bali in search of wisdom ; at the end of his journey he practised asceticism for ten more years until his soul was finally released from all earthly bonds and permitted to enter heaven Lombard : Noorduyn recognized this text as an Old Sundanese poem, after the manuscript in which it has been preserved had lain unidentified in the possession of the Bodleian Library in Oxford ever since or He transliterated it and provided it with a provisional English translation.
In , as a first result of his occupation with the manuscript, he published a paper in which he discussed "Bujangga Manik's journeys through Java", identifying a large number of the more than topographical names contained in the story. By doing so he was able to determine in great detail the route which Bujangga Manik followed in his protracted journeys Noorduyn , see the map on p. Unfortunately Noorduyn, by his untimely death in , was unable to.
Archipel 57, Paris, , pp. Itu Tangkuban Parahu, tanggeran na Gunung Wangi. Having ascended Mount Papandayan,. I looked from there to the mountains,. That there was Mount Tompo Omas,. That was Mount Tangkuban Perahu,. Itu ta bukit Burangrang, ta ng geran na Saung Agung. Itu ta na bukit Burung Jawa, ta ng geran na Hujung Bar at.
Itu bukit Naragati, ta ng geran na Batu Hiang. Itu ta na bukit Barang,. Itu bukit Banasraya, ta ng geran na alas Sajra, ti barat bukit Kosala. Itu ta na bukit Catih,. Ti barat na wates Mener, ta ng geran na Bojong Wangi. Itu ta na gunung Hijur, ta ng geran na Kujar Jaya. Itu ta na bukit Karang, ta ng geran na alas Karang.
Itu gunung Cinta Manik,. Itu ta pulo Sanghiang, heuleut-heuleut nusa Lampung,. That there was Mount Marucung,. That there was Mount Burangrang,. That there was Mount Burung Jawa,. That there was Mount Bulistir,. That there was Mount Kembang,. To the west the boundary of Mener,. That there was Mount Cinta Manik,.
To the north the territory of Panyawung,. That there was Mount That there was the island Sanghiang,. Itu ta gunung J e reding, ta ng geran na alas Mirah,. To the east the island Tampurung,. That there was Mount Jreding,. Looking out to the island of Kambangan,.
Sakampung and the realm of Lampung,. Minangkabau and the realm of Solot,. After having admired all that,. I stayed there doing asceticism,. As is clear from this fragment the text is a poem, written in octosyllabic lines and showing formal correspondences with what is known as the genre of the pantun in Sundanese : long epic-legendary stories, which in an agelong oral tradition until recently used to be told by bards. Details about this Old Sundanese literary genre will be discussed elsewhere.
The present paper will deal with the content of this fragment. The author, who is at the same time the protagonist of the story he speaks usually of himself as aing " I " , reaches the top Mt.
Papandayan is one of the highest mountains meter. A Panorama of the World from Sundanese Perspective Indonesian tinjau. There our pilgrim takes his time to describe the view of the surrounding area, at least that is what it seems to be initially. It is not the first time Bujangga Manik shows interest in a beautiful panorama.
Already in the beginning of his first trip, after he had climbed the Puncak pass, just like a modern tourist he took a rest to look at the mountains, in particular the Gunung Agung Mount Gede , " the highest point in the realm of Pakuan". On Mount Papandayan Bujangga Manik dwells much longer. He starts out describing the whole surrounding area of West Java, often mentioning a mountain as the tanggeran, the "pillar" or the "axis" of the district or area which it dominates.
Sometimes adjacent districts are added. At this point it may be useful to add a few observations concerning the use in the text of certain geographical terms.
The first regards the use of words such as alas, lurah, jajahan for the identification of certain places. Lurah in later Ojv "Middeljavaans" means "chief, officer, head", but in texts such as the Pararaton it may also refer to an "area, region", perhaps under a lurah', another word lurah means "ravine, gorge, valley" Z ; see also Noorduyn : In MSd like in modern Indonesian lurah invariably means " village chief".
Jajahan in Ojv as well as in Msd means "dependency, dependent territory" Z , "onderhorig gebied, kolonie" E In our text we often find lurah combined with a toponym, e. In view of the meaning of the word in Ojv and MSd it is probable that lurah here refers to a district under a local head or administrator, comparable to the modern use of the term "village head".
Mention should be made of the expression lurah-lirih Majapahit, the various districts of M. Alas is no less frequently used in connection with a toponym ; especially in the final part of the journey many times a mountain is said the tanggeran of some alas, e.
Losari , Kuningan , Kurung Batu , Sajra Tanggeran has been translated as "pillar", apparently the mountain in such cases is considered the central pole, axis or pillar of the surrounding territory. In such cases the. Therefore in the translation the distinction of lurah as "district" and alas as "area" has been maintained as far as possible. However, it should be observed that alas is also used to indicate a wider territory, e.
It should also be observed that in many cases a specification such as alas or lurah is lacking, perhaps for metrical reasons.
Jajahan occurs several times, e. With respect to the other two names we do not know whether at the time they were a political entity of some importance with " dependencies " ; perhaps here jajahan is just a synonym of lurah ; metrical reasons may have played a role in the choice of this word. Another terminological problem is posed by the fact that the text differentiates between gunung and bukit.
It is clear that the Malay distinction between " mountain " and " hill " is not relevant, as some of the highest mountains mentioned are called bukit, e. It is interesting that bukit is found neither in MSd nor in Ojv or Jv ; it seems to be an early borrowing from Malay.
Furthermore it is remarkable that bukit is not used for mountains in Central or East Java. Is the use of bukit in a number of cases an indication of Malay influence in West Java already at the time this text was written? In the case of nusa and pulo we may have a similar distinction between a Javanese-Sundanese and a Malay word, although pulo already occurs in a late Ojv text and is also mentioned as Msd in the dictionaries. There are also differences with respect to the use of these words in this text.
In the case of Bali invariably nusa , , is used. Nusa Kambangan, south of Central Java , has also kept its name until today. Sanghiang, P. Tampurung and P. Rakata, the latter still well-known as Krakatau It is probable that these islands received their Malay identification as pulo from the Malay language as the interethnic medium of the sailors in the Archipelago. In Panaitan without further specification , the island east of the southern Peninsula of West Java, is mentioned.
Nusa is not only used for islands such as mentioned above, but also, especially in the panoramic view observed from the top of Mount Papan- dayan , for areas outside Java which are not islands, such as Jambi, Bandan, Tanjungpura, Lampung, Pariaman, Langkabo Minangkabau , including even regions outside Indonesia, such as Malaka, Gedah Kedah , Cempa, Solot, and even China and India Keling for South India, Jambudipa for the northern part of the subcontinent?
A final terminological point concerns the word for "river"; more than fifty rivers are crossed by the protagonist which are invariably called Ci ; this also holds good for rivers in Central and East Java, the word kali "river" only occurring in a sailors' song and in the toponym Kali Gondang which most probably is not a river but a place. Even the Kali Brantas is called Ci- Ronabaya, a name not known from other sources see Noorduyn However, the Madiun river is called bagawan Cangku, which reflects late Ojv and Jav bangawan " great river".
To return now to the view from Mt. Papandayan, there are some lexical problems connected with lines Dangka and manuh are also uncertain; dangka in Ojv probably means "a hermit's abode"; in Jv its meaning is given as "location, place; crude habitation of an ogre or an evil spirit" ; also : "cave where a corps is kept" Home. I translated "settlement"; manuh is even more of a puzzle; in Ojv there is a word manuh, given by Z as "practised, accomplished, well- informed" Z , s.
Does this refer to "accomplished" hermits or ascets who in such places prepare for their death, as Bujangga Manik is going to do later on in the story? These places in are called "remains left by Nusia Larang" "Forbidden Man" ; does this refer to some legendary founder of the settlements in the area?
Bujangga Manik is one of the precious remnants of Old Sundanese literature. It is told in octosyllabic lines — the metrical form of Old Sundanese narrative poetry — in palm-leaf manuscript kept in the Bodleian Library of Oxford University in England, since or MS Jav. Bujangga Manik altogether consists of 29 palm leaves, each containing approximately some 56 lines of 8 syllables. The final part of the text has been transmitted in a lacunary form. Not only is the end lacking, there are two other lacunae.
Bujangga Manik’s journeys through Java; topographical data from an old Sundanese source
Bujangga Manik - Batu Luhur, Kuningan