PART 1. Approved by the Secreta,y General andpublished under his authority. Airport Planning Manual. Part 1.
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The space below is provided to keep a record of such amendments. Date Entered by No. The Air Navigation Commission, after considering the recommendations of that Division, together with other information from the Jet Operations Requirements Panel, the Third Air Navigation Conference and Regional Air Navigation Meetings, agreed to the publication of an aerodrome manual which was progressively revised and added to from time to time.
This part of the Aerodrome Design Manual fulfils the requirement for guidance material on the geometric design of runways and associated aerodrome elements, namely, runway shoulders, runway strips, runway end safety areas, clearways and stopways.
Much of the material included herein reproduces and is closely associated with the specifications contained in Annex 14, Aerodromes, Volume I Aerodrome Design and Operations. The main purpose of this document is to facilitate the uniform application of the Annex 14, Volume I specifications. The manual has been expanded with the inclusion of guidance material relating to runway design, which has been relocated from the Aerodrome Design Manual Doc , Part 2 Aprons, Taxiways and Holding Bays.
Additional guidance has been added on the design of runway turn pads and the strength requirements of runway strips. It is intended that this manual be kept current. Future editions will improve on this edition on the basis of experience gained and of comments and suggestions received from users of the manual. Readers are therefore invited to send their views, comments and suggestions on this edition, in writing, to the Secretary General of ICAO.
Configuration considerations Runway length considerations Aeroplane performance parameters affecting runway length Physical characteristics Planning to accommodate future aircraft developments Aeroplane classification by code number and letter A Appendix 2.
The effect of variable runway slopes on take-off runway lengths A Appendix 3. Aeroplane performance curves and tables for runway planning purposes A Appendix 4. Runway turn pads This manual concerns the provision of runways and these associated elements and summarizes specifications and guidance material relating to their geometric design.
A defined area on land or water including any buildings, installations and equipment intended to be used either wholly or in part for the arrival, departure and surface movement of aircraft. Aerodrome elevation. The elevation of the highest point of the landing area. A defined rectangular area on the ground or water under the control of the appropriate authority, selected or prepared as a suitable area over which an aeroplane may make a portion of its initial climb to a specified height.
Displaced threshold. A threshold not located at the extremity of a runway. Frangible object. An object of low mass designed to break, distort or yield on impact so as to present the minimum hazard to aircraft. Instrument runway. One of the following types of runways intended for the operation of aircraft using instrument approach procedures: a Non-precision approach runway.
An instrument runway served by visual aids and a non-visual aid providing at least directional guidance adequate for a straight-in approach.
B intended for operations with a decision height lower than 15 m 50 ft , or no decision height and a runway visual range less than m but not less than 50 m. C intended for operations with no decision height and no visual range limitations. Landing area. That part of a movement area intended for the landing or take-off of aircraft. Manoeuvring area. That part of an aerodrome to be used for the take-off, landing and taxiing of aircraft, excluding aprons. Movement area. That part of an aerodrome to be used for the take-off, landing and taxiing of aircraft, consisting of the manoeuvring area and the apron s.
Non-instrument runway. A runway intended for the operation of aircraft using visual approach procedures. All fixed whether temporary or permanent and mobile objects, or parts thereof, that are located on an area intended for the surface movement of aircraft or that extend above a defined surface intended to protect aircraft in flight. Primary runway s. Runway s used in preference to others whenever conditions permit. A defined rectangular area on a land aerodrome prepared for the landing and take-off of aircraft.
Runway end safety area RESA. An area symmetrical about the extended runway centre line and adjacent to the end of the strip primarily intended to reduce the risk of damage to an aeroplane undershooting or overrunning the runway. Runway strip. A defined area including the runway and stopway, if provided, intended: a to reduce the risk of damage to aircraft running off a runway; and b to protect aircraft flying over it during take-off or landing operations.
An area adjacent to the edge of a pavement so prepared as to provide a transition between the pavement and the adjacent surface. The beginning of that portion of the runway usable for landing. The code is composed of two elements which are related to the aeroplane performance characteristics and dimensions.
Element 1 is Part 1. Runways Chapter 1. General a number based on the aeroplane reference field length and element 2 is a letter based on the aeroplane wing span and outer main gear wheel span.
The code letter or number within an element selected for design purposes is related to the critical aeroplane characteristics for which the facility is provided. When applying the relevant specifications in Annex 14, Volume I, the aeroplanes which the aerodrome is intended to serve are first identified and then the two elements of the code.
Further, the aerodrome reference code numbers and letters shall have the meanings assigned to them in Table A classification of representative aeroplanes by the code number and code letter is included in Appendix 1. The aeroplane reference field length is defined as the minimum field length required for take-off at maximum certificated take-off mass, sea level, standard atmospheric conditions, still air and zero runway slope, as shown in the appropriate aeroplane flight manual prescribed by the certificating authority or equivalent data from the aeroplane manufacturer.
Accordingly, if 1 m corresponds to the highest value of the aeroplane reference field lengths, the code number selected would be 3. For instance, if code letter C corresponds to the aeroplane with the greatest wing span and code letter D corresponds to the aeroplane with the greatest outer main gear wheel span, the code letter selected would be D. Distance between the outside edges of the main gear wheels.
Flexibility to accommodate any future expansion of the runway infrastructure is fundamental to the planning and design of airports. All runways should be oriented so that approach and departure areas are free of obstacles and, preferably, so that aircraft are not directed over populated areas. The decision as to the total number of runways to be provided should also take into account the aerodrome usability factor and economic considerations.
Type of operation 2. The observations used should be made at least eight times daily and spaced at equal intervals of time, and should take into account the following: a wind statistics used for the calculation of the usability factor are normally available in ranges of speed and direction, and the accuracy of the results obtained depends, to a large extent, on the assumed distribution of observations within these ranges.
In the absence of any sure information as to the true distribution, it is usual to assume a uniform distribution since, in relation to the most favourable runway orientations, this generally results in a slightly conservative figure for the usability factor; b the maximum mean cross-wind components given in 2.
There are some factors which may require that a reduction of those maximum values be taken into account at a particular aerodrome. These include: 1 the wide variations which may exist, in handling characteristics and maximum permissible cross- wind components, among diverse types of aeroplanes including future types within each of the three groups given in 2.
Part 1. Runways Chapter 2. Configuration considerations 2. Weather records can usually be obtained from government weather bureaux. The velocities are generally grouped into The weather records contain the percentage of time certain combinations of ceiling and visibility occur e. The directions are relative to true north. Often wind data for a new location have not been recorded.
If that is the case, records of nearby measuring stations should be consulted. If the surrounding area is fairly level, the records of these stations should indicate the winds at the site of the proposed aerodrome.
However, if the terrain is hilly, the wind pattern often is dictated by the topography, and it is dangerous to utilize the records of stations some distance from the site. In that event, a study of the topography of the region and consultation with local residents may prove useful but a wind study of the site should be initiated. Such a study would involve the installation of wind gauges and the keeping of wind records.
Guidance material on the preparation and analysis of wind data for aerodrome planning purposes is given in the Airport Planning Manual Doc Part 1 Master Planning. Visibility conditions 2. Topography of the aerodrome site, its approaches and surroundings 2. In particular the following should be reviewed: a compliance with the obstacle limitation surfaces; b current and future land use. The orientation and layout should be selected so as to protect as far as possible the particularly sensitive areas such as residential, school and hospital zones from the discomfort caused by aircraft noise; c current and future runway lengths to be provided; d construction costs; and e the possibility of installing suitable non-visual and visual aids for approach-to-land.
Air traffic in the vicinity of the aerodrome 2. Most noise exposure lies within the land area immediately beneath and adjacent to the aircraft approach and departure paths. Noise levels are generally measured through some formulation of decibel level, duration and number of occurrences. Proper site selection and adjacent land use planning can serve to greatly reduce and possibly eliminate the noise problem associated with the aerodrome.
Parallel runways 2. Where parallel runways are provided for simultaneous use under visual meteorological conditions only, the minimum distance between their centre lines should be: m where the higher code number is 3 or 4; m where the higher code number is 2; and m where the higher code number is 1.
Airport planning manual (Doc 9184-AN/902). part 1 : master planning
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