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Medicinal and pharmacological significance of the Acorus species is steadily increasing. Several species mainly Acorus calamus , A. Perhaps, A. A number of active constituents from leaves, rhizomes and essential oils of Acorus spp. Besides, more new active constituents possessing important bioactive properties are being isolated and identified from Acorus spp. A number of reports published have documented many new useful bioactivities of Acorus spp.
In the present article we have discussed recently recognized many newer bioactivities and chemical composition of Acorus spp. This study would be very useful for those conducting researches on bioactivity screening in Acorus spp. The genus Acorus comprises 40 species, however, only few species like Acorus calamus Linn. It is reported as a good source of active constituents possessing several useful bioactive properties. Acorus calamus L. The plant grows worldwide wildly along swamps, rivers and lakes Kim et al.
It is widely used in traditional folk medicine of America and Indonesia for gastrointestinal disorders such as, colic pain, diarrhea and the radix in the therapy of diabetes Gilani et al. Also, A. The other species A. It has narrow, 6 to 14 in Many previous studies have reported chemical composition s and bioactivities of A. Reports have revealed that A. Essential oils of A. Aromatic oils obtained by alcoholic extraction of the rhizome are used in the pharmaceutical and oenological industries Du et al.
Studies of chemical composition of Acorus spp. Some other constituents like caryophyllene, isoasarone, methyl isoeugenol and safrol present in lesser amounts have also been identified in the extracts of rhizomes and roots Namba, ; Wang et al.
Geng et al. The lectins found in the rhizomes of A. Until few years back the Acorus spp. The information complied in the present article have been derived from the analysis of the research articles and reports published on chemical composition and bioactivities of Acorus spp. Chemical compositions: Chemical compositions of Acurus spp. Several studies and reviews have documented chemical composition s of Accorus spp.
Du et al. Twenty eight chemical constituents were identified in A. Of the 28 compounds identified three were new sesquiterpenes 1 beta, 7 alpha H -cadinane-4 alpha, 6 alpha, 10 alpha-triol, 1 alpha, 5 beta-guaiane alpha-O-ethyl-4 beta, 6 beta-diol and 6 beta, 7 beta H -cadinane-1 alpha, 4 alpha, 10 alpha-triol Dong et al.
Dong et al. Previously, two novel spiroalkaloids namely acortatarins A and B with a naturally unusual morpholine motif were reported from the rhizome of A. A cortatarins-A has potential of inhibiting reactive oxygen species production in high-glucose-stimulated mesangial cells in a dose-and time-dependent manner Tong et al.
Another study by Tong et al. Chemical structures of some of these compounds are presented in Fig. Important bioactivities Anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive activities: Anti-inflammatory properties of many plants species have been known for a long time. The fact that the plants and their products may be implicated in alleviating diseases via modulation of immune response s has directed researchers for screening of plants for anti-inflammatory properties.
Several studies have recognized anti-inflammatory potential of Acurus spp. A study by Mehrotra et al. Kim et al. Anti-adipogenic activity: Researchers investigating anti-adipogenic properties of Accorus spp. The saponins found in ethanolic extract of A.
The water extract of A. Differentiations in adipocytes were measured as a function of triglyceroids and protein expression of the glucose transporter in adepocytes. The property of A.
Earlier, this group has reported that asarones from A. Asarone tend to reduces intracellular triglyceride levels by stimulating the phosphorylation of hormone-sensitive lipase which triggers lipolysis in adipocytes. Antimicrobial and fungicidal properties: Comparatively, antimicrobial properties of Acorus spp. We have studied antibacterial and antifungal properties of petroleum ether, chloroform, hexane and ethyl acetate extract of leaf and rhizome tissues of A.
Results of the study have shown that leaf and rhizome extract demonstrated marked antifungal activity but no antimicrobial activity observed except against Escherichia coli Devi and Ganjewala, Anti-microbial properties of A. Phongpaichit et al. Lee et al. Further, Lee has studied the fungicidal property of hexane extract of A. The plant of A. Their synthesis, however, is triggered by the pathogenesis.
The haem peroxidase of A. Later, this enzyme was isolated and purified from the leaf epidermal cells and lumen tissues of xylem. At present, knowledge of synthesis and accumulation of the heam perxidase or similar proteins in other members of Acorus spp.
For long time, the radix of A. A new study reports that A. The study found that ethyl acetate fraction of A. Previously, Wu et al. Although these preliminary reports have clearly indicated the potential of A. Protective effects: Protective roles of Acorus spp. The protective effects of Acorus spp. Commercial asarones as well as those isolated from A. Furthermore, the excitotoxicity induced by glutamate has also been inhibited, but with much less potency than the toxicity induced by NMDA Cho et al.
The study based on the receptor-ligand binding using a use-dependent NMDA receptor-channel blocker [ 3 H]MK revealed that asarone inhibited the specific bindings in a concentration-dependent fashion Cho et al.
Acorus calamus rhizome extract prepared with ethanol:water has demonstrated neuroprotective effects in the middle cerebral artery occlusion-induced ischaemia in rats Shukla et al. Application of A. Free radicals and other ROS have been recognized as an important causative factor in the development of neurodegenerative disorders. In the past several years, a number of reports have been published revealing antioxidant potential of many medicinal plant s which has been implicated in minimizing harmful effects of free radical s.
Several research groups have evaluated antioxidant potential of plants of Acosrus spp. In our recently published study we have reported antioxidant activities of m ethanolic extract of A.
The properties of scavenging free radical of A. Protective effect of ethyl acetate and m ethanolic extract of A. These extracts have protected most of the changes induced by noise-stress in the rat brain. The protective effects were substantiated by measurement of the activities of enzymes superoxide dismutase , catalase, glutathione peroxidase, reduced glutathione as well as the level of vitamin C , E, protein thiols and lipid peroxidation Manikandan et al.
A study by Hazra et al. Thus, this property of A. A recent study has provided preliminary insight into the radioprotecting potential of A. The study in vitro carried out has shown that extract of A. The radioprotective effects were evaluated by measuring the degree of lipid peroxidation caused using thiobarbit uric acid reacting substances.
The properties of A. Extract of A. Nickel, is a major environmental pollutant known for its clastogenic, toxic and carcinogenic properties. Beside protective roles of A. In this context several research groups are investigating Acorus spp. Other useful bioactivities: The list of important bioactivities of the Acorus spp. In this section we have discussed several important but less studied bioactivities of Acorus species. Interestingly, pharmacological as well as ecological significance of A.
Ethanolic extracts of A. Treatment of wound in male and female rats induced by an excision and incision with ethanolic extract has been found to be promising for healing. Novel lectins isolated from the rhizomes of A. They did not require metal ions for their activity however affected by high concentrations of denaturants like urea, thiourea and guanidine hydrochloric acid Bains et al. Park et al. Two research groups have documented allelopathic activities of A.
An Update on Chemical Composition and Bioactivities of Acorus Species
We'd like to understand how you use our websites in order to improve them. Register your interest. The rhizome and leaf essential oil compositions of Acorus calamus L. Araceae have been investigated in detail from various parts of the world, but the root oil composition has rarely been investigated. In present study, the root essential oil composition of A. A total of 21 constituents, forming The root oil composition was quite different from rhizome and leaf oil compositions of A.
[Chemical Constituents of Acorus Calamus]